Mishkat
al-Masabih

مشكاة المصابيح

15

Oaths and Vows

كتاب الإيمان والنذور

Ahadith 3406 to 3445
Chapter : Section 1
الفصل الأول

Mishkat al-Masabih 3406

Ibn ‘Umar said the greatest oath the Prophet (ﷺ) used was, “No, by Him who overturns the hearts.” Bukhari transmitted it.

عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَكْثَرُ مَا كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يحلف: «لَا ومقلب الْقُلُوب» . رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيّ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3407

He reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “Allah forbids you to swear by your fathers. If anyone swears he must swear by God, or keep silent.” (Bukhari and Muslim.)

وَعَنْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَنْهَاكُمْ أَنْ تَحْلِفُوا بِآبَائِكُمْ مَنْ كَانَ حَالِفًا فَلْيَحْلِفْ بِاللَّهِ أَوْ ليصمت»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3408

‘Abd ar-Rahman b. Samura reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “Do not swear by idols or by your fathers.” Muslim transmitted it.

وَعَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَمُرَةَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا تَحْلِفُوا بِالطَّوَاغِي وَلَا بِآبَائِكُمْ» . رَوَاهُ مُسلم

Mishkat al-Masabih 3409

Abu Huraira reported the Prophet (ﷺ) as saying that if anyone swears an oath in the course of which he says, “By al-Lat and al-‘Uzza”, he should say, “There is no Allah but Allah”; and that if anyone says to his friend, “Come and let me play for money with you”, he should pay sadaqa. (Bukhari and Muslim.)

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: " مَنْ حَلَفَ فَقَالَ فِي حَلِفِهِ: بِاللَّاتِ وَالْعُزَّى فَلْيَقُلْ: لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ. وَمَنْ قَالَ لِصَاحِبِهِ: تَعَالَ أقامرك فليتصدق "

Mishkat al-Masabih 3410

Thabit b. ad-Dahhak reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “If anyone swears by a religion other than Islam falsely he is like what he has said.* A son of Adam may not take a vow about something which he does not possess, and if anyone kills himself with something in this world he will be punished with it on the day of resurrection. If anyone curses a believer it is like murdering him, if anyone charges a believer with infidelity it is like murdering him, and if anyone makes a false claim to gain much thereby Allah will give him less instead of more.” (Bukhari and Muslim.) *Opinions differ about the meaning. Some say it means he is a liar, others that he is an infidel.

وَعَنْ ثَابِتِ بْنِ الضَّحَّاكِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى مِلَّةٍ غَيْرِ الْإِسْلَامِ كَاذِبًا فَهُوَ كَمَا قَالَ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ فِيمَا لَا يَمْلِكُ وَمَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسَهُ بِشَيْءٍ فِي الدُّنْيَا عُذِّبَ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَمَنْ لَعَنَ مُؤْمِنًا فَهُوَ كَقَتْلِهِ وَمَنْ قَذَفَ مُؤْمِنًا بِكُفْرٍ فَهُوَ كَقَتْلِهِ وَمَنِ ادَّعَى دَعْوَى كَاذِبَةً لِيَتَكَثَّرَ بِهَا لَمْ يَزِدْهُ اللَّهُ إِلَّا قِلَّةً»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3411

Abu Musa reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “I swear by Allah that if Allah will, I shall not swear an oath and then consider something else to be better than it without making atonement for my oath and doing the thing that is better.” (Bukhari and Muslim.)

وَعَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «أَنِّي وَاللَّهِ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَا أَحْلِفُ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَأَرَى غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا إِلَّا كَفَّرْتُ عَنْ يَمِينِي وَأَتَيْتُ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3412

‘Abd ar-Rahman b. Samura reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, "Do not ask for rule ship, ‘Abd ar-Rahman b. Samura, for if you are given it as a result of asking you will be left to deal with it yourself, but if you are given it without asking you will be helped in undertaking it. And when you swear an oath and consider something else to be better than it, make atonement for your oath and do the thing that is better.’’* (Bukhari and Muslim.) *In the Damascus edn the tradition ends at oath*. Mirqat, iii, S57 gives the full form translated above and adds

A version has, "Do the thing that is better and make atonement for your oath.’* Bukhari, al-Aiman wan-nudhur, I and Muslim, Aiman, 19 give the first form in full. I have not found the other version.

وَعَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَمُرَةَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «يَا عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ سَمُرَةَ لَا تَسْأَلِ الْإِمَارَةَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ أُوتِيتَهَا عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ وُكِلْتَ إِلَيْهَا وَإِنْ أُوتِيتَهَا عَنْ غَيْرِ مَسْأَلَةٍ أُعِنْتَ عَلَيْهَا وَإِذَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَيْتَ غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَكَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِكَ وَأْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ» . وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ: «فَأْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خير وَكفر عَن يَمِينك»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3413

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, "If anyone swears an oath and considers something else to be better than it he should make atonement for his oath and do that.” Muslim transmitted it.

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَى خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَلْيُكَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وليفعل» . رَوَاهُ مُسلم

Mishkat al-Masabih 3414

He reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, "I swear by Allah that it is more sinful in God’s sight for one of you to persist in his oath regarding his family than to give for it the atonement Allah has imposed.” (Bukhari and Muslim.)

وَعَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «وَاللَّهِ لَأَنْ يَلَجَّ أَحَدُكُمْ بِيَمِينِهِ فِي أَهْلِهِ آثَمُ لَهُ عِنْدَ الله نم أَنْ يُعْطِيَ كَفَّارَتَهُ الَّتِي افْتَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3415

He reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, "Your oath should be about something regarding which your companion will believe you.” Muslim transmitted it.

وَعَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «يَمِينُكَ عَلَى مَا يُصَدِّقُكَ عَلَيْهِ صَاحبك» . رَوَاهُ مُسلم

Mishkat al-Masabih 3416

He reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, "An oath is to be interpreted according to the intention of the one who takes it.” Muslim transmitted it.

وَعَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «الْيَمِينُ عَلَى نِيَّةِ الْمُسْتَحْلِفِ» . رَوَاهُ مُسلم

Mishkat al-Masabih 3417

‘A’isha said that the verse, "Allah will not take you to account for what is futile in your oaths” (Al-Qu’ran 2

225; 5:89) was sent down about such phrases as "No, by God,” and "Yes, by God.” Bukhari transmitted it. Sharh as-sunna has the wording of al-Masabih, saying that some transmitters traced it back to the Prophet (ﷺ) on ‘A’isha’s authority.

عَن عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: أُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ: (لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ) فِي قَوْلِ الرَّجُلِ: لَا وَاللَّهِ وَبَلَى وَاللَّهِ. رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ وَفِي شَرْحِ السُّنَّةِ لَفْظُ الْمَصَابِيحِ وَقَالَ: رَفَعَهُ بَعْضُهُمْ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنهُ

Chapter : Section 2
الفصل الثاني

Mishkat al-Masabih 3418

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, "Do not swear by your fathers, or by your mothers, or by rivals (Cf. Al-Qur’an 2

22 etc. The reference is to idols or false gods) to God; and swear by Allah only when you are speaking the truth.” Abu Dawud and Nasa’i transmitted it.

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا تَحْلِفُوا بِآبَائِكُمْ وَلَا بِأُمَّهَاتِكُمْ وَلَا بِالْأَنْدَادِ وَلَا تَحْلِفُوا بِاللَّهِ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ صَادِقُونَ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3419

Ibn Umar told that he heard Allah's Messenger ﷺ say, “He who swears by anyone but Allah is a polytheist.” Tirmidhi transmitted it.

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «مَنْ حَلَفَ بِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ أَشْرَكَ» . رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيّ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3420

Buraida reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “He who swears by faithfulness* is not one of our number.” Abu Dawud transmitted it. * Amana. It is held that the objection is due to the fact that the word is not the name of one of God's attributes, but merely one of the duties prescribed to mankind. It is an unsuitable word because its use suggests that it is being equated with one of God’s attributes.

وَعَنْ بُرَيْدَةَ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ حَلَفَ بِالْأَمَانَةِ فَلَيْسَ منا» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد

Mishkat al-Masabih 3421

He reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as stating that if anyone says, “I am free from Islam,” that is just as he has said if he is lying, but if he is speaking the truth he will not return safely to Islam. Abu Dawud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah transmitted it.

وَعَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: " مَنْ قَالَ: إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنَ الْإِسْلَامِ فَإِنْ كَانَ كَاذِبًا فَهُوَ كَمَا قَالَ وَإِنْ كَانَ صَادِقًا فَلَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ سَالِمًا ". رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3422

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri told that when Allah's Messenger ﷺ swore strongly he said, “No, by Him in whose hand is the soul of Abu Qasim.” Abu Dawud transmitted it.

وَعَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ قَالَ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا اجْتَهَدَ فِي الْيَمِينِ قَالَ: «لَا وَالَّذِي نفس أَبُو الْقَاسِم بِيَدِهِ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد

Mishkat al-Masabih 3423

Abu Huraira said that when Allah's Messenger ﷺ swore an oath it was, “No, and I ask forgiveness of God.” Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah transmitted it.

وَعَن أبي هُرَيْرَة قَالَ: كَانَتْ يَمِينُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا حَلَفَ: «لَا وَأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد وَابْن مَاجَه

Mishkat al-Masabih 3424

Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as stating that if anyone says when swearing an oath, “If Allah will”, he is not held accountable if he breaks it. Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Darimi transmitted it, but Tirmidhi mentioned a number who traced it no farther back than Ibn ‘Umar.

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى الله ليه وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: " مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَقَالَ: إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ فَلَا حِنْثَ عَلَيْهِ ". رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ وَالدَّارِمِيُّ وَذَكَرَ التِّرْمِذِيُّ جَمَاعَةً وَقَفُوهُ عَلَى ابْنِ عُمَرَ

Chapter : Section 3
الفصل الثالث

Mishkat al-Masabih 3425

Abul Ahwas ‘Auf b. Malik quoted his father as saying

I said, “Messenger of God, tell me what I should do about a cousin of mine to whom I go and ask for something, but who neither gives me anything nor regards my kinship, then when he needs my help comes to me and asks for something, and I have sworn that I would not give him anything or regard his kinship.” He commanded me to do that which is better and make atonement for my oath. In Ibn Majah’s version he told that he said, “Messenger of God, my cousin comes to me and I swear that I will not give him anything or regard his kinship,” and that he replied, “Make atonement for your oath.” Nasa’i and Ibn Majah transmitted it.

عَوْفِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ: قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ ابْنَ عَم لي آتيه فَلَا يُعْطِينِي وَلَا يَصِلُنِي ثُمَّ يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيَّ فَيَأْتِينِي فَيَسْأَلُنِي وَقَدْ حَلَفْتُ أَنْ لَا أُعْطِيَهُ وَلَا أَصِلَهُ فَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ آتِيَ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ وَأُكَفِّرَ عَنْ يَمِينِي. رَوَاهُ النَّسَائِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ قَالَ: قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ يَأْتِينِي ابْنُ عَمِّي فَأَحْلِفُ أَنْ لَا أُعْطِيَهُ وَلَا أَصِلَهُ قَالَ: «كَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِكَ»

Chapter 1a: Vows - Section 1
باب في النذور - الفصل الأول

Mishkat al-Masabih 3426

Abu Huraira and Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “Do not make vows, for a vow has no effect against fate; it is only from the miserly that it is a means by which something is extracted.” (Bukhari and Muslim.)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ قَالَا: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا تَنْذُرُوا فَإِنَّ النَّذْرَ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْقَدَرِ شَيْئًا وَإِنَّمَا يُسْتَخْرَجُ بِهِ من الْبَخِيل»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3427

‘A’isha reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “If anyone vows to obey Allah let him obey Him, but if anyone vows to disobey Him let him not disobey Him.” Bukhari transmitted it.

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنْ نَذَرَ أَنْ يُطِيعَ اللَّهَ فَلْيُطِعْهُ وَمَنْ نَذَرَ أَنْ يَعْصِيَهُ فَلَا يَعْصِهِ» . رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيّ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3428

‘Imran b. Husain reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “A vow to do an act of disobedience must not be fulfilled, or one to do something over which one has no control.” Muslim transmitted it. A version has, “No vow must be taken to disobey God.”

وَعَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا وَفَاءَ لِنَذْرٍ فِي مَعْصِيَةٍ وَلَا فِيمَا لَا يَمْلِكُ الْعَبْدُ» . رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ: «لَا نَذْرَ فِي مَعْصِيّة الله»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3429

‘Uqba b. ‘Amir reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “The atonement for a vow is the same as for an oath.” Muslim transmitted it.

وَعَن عقبَة بن عَامر عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «كَفَّارَةُ النَّذْرِ كَفَّارَةُ الْيَمِينِ» . رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3430

Ibn ‘Abbas said

While the Prophet (ﷺ) was preaching a man was standing, so he asked about him and was told that he was Abu Isra’il who had taken a vow to stand and not to sit, or go into the shade, or speak, but to fast. Thereupon the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Command him to speak, go into the shade, sit and complete his fast.” Bukhari transmitted it.

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: بَيْنَا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْطُبُ إِذا هُوَ بِرَجُل قَائِم فَسَأَلَهُ عَنْهُ فَقَالُوا: أَبُو إِسْرَائِيلَ نَذَرَ أَنْ يَقُومَ وَلَا يَقْعُدَ وَلَا يَسْتَظِلَّ وَلَا يَتَكَلَّمَ وَيَصُومَ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مُرُوهُ فَلْيَتَكَلَّمْ وَلْيَسْتَظِلَّ وَلْيَقْعُدْ وَلْيُتِمَّ صَوْمَهُ» . رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3431

Anas said that the Prophet ﷺ an old man being supported between his sons, and on asking what was the matter with him and being told that he had taken a vow to walk,* he said, “Allah most high has no need that this man should punish himself,” and he ordered him to ride. In a version by Muslim on Abu Huraira’s authority he said, “Ride, old man, for Allah is not in need of you and your vow.” *Mirqat, iii, 565 explains this as a vow to walk to the Ka’ba. (Bukhari and Muslim).

وَعَنْ أَنَسٍ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَأَى شَيْخًا يُهَادَى بَيْنَ ابْنَيْهِ فَقَالَ: «مَا بَالُ هَذَا؟» قَالُوا: نَذَرَ أَنْ يَمْشِيَ إِلَى بَيت الله قَالَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى عَنْ تَعْذِيبِ هَذَا نَفسه لَغَنِيّ» . وَأمره أَن يركب. وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لِمُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ: «ارْكَبْ أَيُّهَا الشَّيْخُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنْكَ وَعَن نذرك»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3433

Ibn ‘Abbas told that Sa'd b. ‘Ubada asked the Prophet (ﷺ) for a decision about a vow taken by his mother who had died before fulfilling it, and that he gave decision that he should fulfil it on her behalf. (Bukhari and Muslim.)

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: أَنَّ سَعْدَ بن عبَادَة رَضِي الله عَنْهُم اسْتَفْتَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي نَذْرٍ كَانَ عَلَى أُمِّهِ فَتُوُفِّيَتْ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَقْضِيَهُ فَأَفْتَاهُ أَنْ يَقْضِيَهُ عَنْهَا

Mishkat al-Masabih 3434

Ka'b b. Malik told that he said, “Messenger of God, to make my repentance complete* I should divest myself of my property as sadaqa for Allah and His Messenger.” Allah's Messenger ﷺ replied, “Retain some of your property, for that will be better for you.” So he said he would retain the portion he had at Khaibar. (Bukhari and Muslim.) This is part of a long tradition. * Mirqat, iii, 566 refers this to his withdrawal from the expedition to Tabuk without a valid reason. Pt. 10

وَعَنْ كَعْبِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ: قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ مِنْ تَوْبَتِي أَنْ أَنْخَلِعَ مِنْ مَالِي صَدَقَةً إِلَى اللَّهِ وَإِلَى رَسُولِهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «أَمْسِكْ بَعْضَ مَالِكَ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكَ» . قُلْتُ: فَإِنِّي أُمْسِكُ سَهْمِي الَّذِي بِخَيْبَر. وَهَذَا طرف من حَدِيث مطول

Chapter 1b: Vows - Section 2
باب في النذور - الفصل الثاني

Mishkat al-Masabih 3435

‘A'isha reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “No vow must be taken to do an act of disobedience, and the atonement for it is the same as for an oath.” Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i transmitted it.

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا نَذْرَ فِي مَعْصِيَةٍ وَكَفَّارَتُهُ كَفَّارَةُ الْيَمِينِ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَالنَّسَائِيّ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3436

Ibn ‘Abbas reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying, “If anyone takes a vow but does not name it, its atonement is the same as that for an oath; if anyone takes a vow to do an act of disobedience, its atonement is the same as that for an oath; if anyone takes a vow he is unable to fulfil, its atonement is the same as that for an oath; but if anyone takes a vow he is able to fulfil, he must do so.” Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah transmitted it, but some traced it no farther back than Ibn ‘Abbas.

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنْ نَذَرَ نَذْرًا لم يسمه فَكَفَّارَتُهُ كَفَّارَةُ يَمِينٍ. وَمَنْ نَذَرَ نَذْرًا لَا يُطِيقُهُ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ كَفَّارَةُ يَمِينٍ. وَمَنْ نَذَرَ نَذْرًا أَطَاقَهُ فَلْيَفِ بِهِ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَابْنُ مَاجَه وَوَقفه بَعضهم على ابْن عَبَّاس

Mishkat al-Masabih 3437

Thabit b. ad-Dahhak said that in the time of Allah's Messenger ﷺ a man took a vow to slaughter camels at Buwana and came and told him. Allah's Messenger ﷺ asked whether the place contained any idol worshipped in pre-Islamic times and was told that it did not. He asked whether any pre-Islamic festival was observed there and was told that no such thing was observed. He then said to the man, “Fulfil your vow, for a vow to do an act of disobedience to Allah must not be fulfilled, neither must one to do something over which a human being has no control.” Abu Dawud transmitted it.

وَعَن ثَابت بن الضَّحَّاك قَالَ: نَذَرَ رَجُلٌ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَنْحَرَ إِبِلًا بِبُوَانَةَ فَأَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَخْبَرَهُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «هَلْ كَانَ فِيهَا وَثَنٌ مِنْ أَوْثَانِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يُعْبَدُ؟» قَالُوا: لَا قَالَ: «فَهَلْ كَانَ فِيهِ عِيدٌ مِنْ أَعْيَادِهِمْ؟» قَالُوا: لَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «أوف بِنَذْرِك فَإِنَّهُ لَا وَفَاءَ لِنَذْرٍ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ اللَّهِ وَلَا فِيمَا لَا يَمْلِكُ ابْنُ آدَمَ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد

Mishkat al-Masabih 3438

‘Amr b. Shu'aib, on his father’s authority, said that his grandfather told of a woman who said, “Messenger of God, I have taken a vow to play the tambourine over you,” to which he replied, “Fulfil your vow.” Abu Dawud transmitted it. Razin added that she said, “And I have taken a vow to perform a sacrifice in such and such a place,” a place in which people had performed sacrifices in pre-Islamic times. He asked whether that place contained any idol worshipped in pre-Islamic times, and she replied that it did not. He asked whether any pre-Islamic festival was observed there, and she replied that none was. He then said, “Fulfil your vow.” Razin

وَعَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جده رَضِي الله عَنهُ أَنَّ امْرَأَةً قَالَتْ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ أَنْ أَضْرِبَ عَلَى رَأْسِكَ بِالدُّفِّ قَالَ: «أَوْفِي بِنَذْرِكِ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَزَادَ رَزِينٌ: قَالَتْ: وَنَذَرْتُ أَنْ أَذْبَحَ بِمَكَانِ كَذَا وَكَذَا مَكَانٌ يَذْبَحُ فِيهِ أَهْلُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَقَالَ: «هَلْ كَانَ بِذَلِكِ الْمَكَانِ وَثَنٌ مِنْ أَوْثَانِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يُعْبَدُ؟» قَالَتْ: لَا قَالَ: «هَلْ كَانَ فِيهِ عِيدٌ مِنْ أَعْيَادِهِمْ؟» قَالَتْ: لَا قَالَ: «أَوْفِي بِنَذْرِك»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3439

bu Lubaba told that she said to the Prophet, “To make my repentance complete* I should abandon my people’s abode in which I committed sin and divest myself of all my property to be given as sadaqa.” He replied, “A third will be enough for you to give.” Razin transmitted it. * The story is given in Ibn Hisham’s as-Sirat an nabawiya (Cairo, 1355/1936), iii. 247. Quraiza had consulted him as to whether they should surrender unconditionally, and while he replied that they should, he put his hand to his throat to indicate that if they did they would be put to death, thus giving them a warning. Al-Qur’an, 8

27 is said to be connected with this incident.

وَعَن أبي لبَابَة: أَنَّهُ قَالَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: إِنَّ مِنْ تَوْبَتِي أَنْ أَهْجُرَ دَارَ قَوْمِي الَّتِي أَصَبْتُ فِيهَا الذَّنْبَ وَأَنْ أَنْخَلِعَ مِنْ مَالِي كُلِّهِ صَدَقَةً قَالَ: «يُجْزِئُ عَنْكَ الثُّلُثُ» . رَوَاهُ رزين

Mishkat al-Masabih 3440

Jabir b. ‘Abdallah told that a man got up on the day of the Conquest and said, “Messenger of God, I have vowed to Allah who is great and glorious that if Allah conquers Mecca at your hands I shall pray two rak'as in Jerusalem.” He replied, “Pray here.” He repeated his statement to him and he replied, “Pray here.” He again repeated it to him and he replied, “Pursue your own course, then.” Abu Dawud and Darimi transmitted it.

وَعَن جَابر بن عبد الله: أَنَّ رَجُلًا قَامَ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُول الله لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنْ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ مَكَّةَ أَنْ أُصَلِّيَ فِي بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ قَالَ: «صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم هَهُنَا» ثمَّ عَاد فَقَالَ: «صل هَهُنَا» ثُمَّ أَعَادَ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ: «شَأْنَكَ إِذًا» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد والدارمي

Mishkat al-Masabih 3441

Ibn ‘Abbas told that the sister of ‘Uqba b. ‘Amir took a vow to perform the Pilgrimage on foot, but was unable to do so. Allah's Messenger ﷺ then said, “Allah is not in need of your sister’s walking, so let her ride and present a sacrificial camel.”* Abu Dawud and Darimi transmitted it. *Arabic budana In a version by Abu Dawud it says the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered her to ride and offer animals for sacrifice.* In another version by him the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Allah gets no good from the affliction your sister imposes on herself, so let her perform the Pilgrimage riding and make atonement for her oath.” Abu Dawud. *Arabic hady

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: أَنَّ أُخْتَ عُقْبَةَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ نَذَرَتْ أَنْ تَحُجَّ مَاشِيَة وَأَنَّهَا لَا تطِيق ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ عَنْ مَشْيِ أُخْتِكَ فَلْتَرْكَبْ وَلْتُهْدِ بَدَنَةً» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالدَّارِمِيُّ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لِأَبِي دَاوُدَ: فَأَمَرَهَا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ تَرْكَبَ وَتُهْدِيَ هَدْيًا وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لَهُ: فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَصْنَعُ بِشَقَاءِ أُخْتِكَ شَيْئًا فَلْتَرْكَبْ ولتحج وتكفر يَمِينهَا»

Mishkat al-Masabih 3442

‘Abdallah b. Malik told that when ‘Uqba b. ‘Amir consulted the Prophet (ﷺ) about a sister of his who had vowed to perform the Pilgrimage. If barefoot and bareheaded, he said, “Command her to cover her head and to ride, and to fast three days.” Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Darimi transmitted it.

وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ أَنَّ عُقْبَةَ بن عَامر سَأَلَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ أُخْتٍ لَهُ نَذَرَتْ أَنْ تَحُجَّ حَافِيَةً غَيْرَ مُخْتَمِرَةٍ فَقَالَ: «مُرُوهَا فَلْتَخْتَمِرْ وَلْتَرْكَبْ وَلْتَصُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ والدارمي

Mishkat al-Masabih 3443

Sa'id b. al-Musayyib told that there were two brothers among the Ansar who shared an inheritance and that when one of them asked the other for the portion due to him he replied, “If you ask me again for the portion due to you, all my property will be devoted to the Ka'ba.”1 ‘Umar, telling him that the Ka'ba did not need his property, ordered I him to make atonement for his oath and speak to his brother, for he had heard Allah's Messenger ﷺ say, “An oath or a vow to disobey the Lord, t or to break ties of relationship, or about something over which one has no control is not binding on you.” Abu Dawud transmitted it. 1. Fi ritaj al-ka'ba. This phrase which speaks of the door of the Ka'ba is used as a phrase for the Ka'ba itself. 2. Mirqat, iii, 570 says it means he is to speak to his brother about repeating his request.

وَعَن سعيد بن الْمسيب: أَنَّ أَخَوَيْنِ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ كَانَ بَيْنَهُمَا مِيرَاثٌ فَسَأَلَ أَحَدُهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ الْقِسْمَةَ فَقَالَ: إِنْ عُدْتَ تَسْأَلُنِي الْقِسْمَةَ فَكُلُّ مَالِي فِي رِتَاجِ الْكَعْبَةِ فَقَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ: إِنَّ الْكَعْبَةَ غَنِيَّةٌ عَنْ مَالِكَ كَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِكَ وَكَلِّمْ أَخَاكَ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «لَا يَمِينَ عَلَيْكَ وَلَا نَذْرَ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ الرَّبِّ وَلَا فِي قَطِيعَةِ الرَّحِمِ وَلَا فِيمَا لَا يملك» . رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد

Chapter 1c: Vows - Section 3
باب في النذور - الفصل الثالث

Mishkat al-Masabih 3444

‘Imran b. Husain told that he heard Allah's Messenger ﷺ say, “Vows are of two kinds, so if anyone vows to do an act of obedience, that is for Allah and must be fulfilled; but if anyone vows, to do an act of disobedience, that is for the devil and must not be fulfilled, but he must make atonement for it to the extent he would do in the case of an oath.”

عَن عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: " النَّذْرُ نَذْرَانِ: فَمَنْ كَانَ نَذَرَ فِي طَاعَةٍ فَذَلِكَ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ الْوَفَاءُ وَمَنْ كَانَ نَذَرَ فِي مَعْصِيَةٍ فَذَلِكَ لِلشَّيْطَانِ وَلَا وَفَاء فِيهِ وَيُكَفِّرُهُ مَا يُكَفِّرُ الْيَمِينَ ". رَوَاهُ النَّسَائِيُّ

Mishkat al-Masabih 3445

Muhammad b. al-Muntashir told of a man who vowed to sacrifice himself if Allah rescued him from his enemy. He consulted Ibn ‘Abbas who told him to consult Masruq, and when he consulted him he replied, “Do not sacrifice yourself, for if you are a believer, you will kill a believing soul, and if you are an infidel you will hasten to hell; but buy a ram and sacrifice it for the poor, for Isaac was better than you and he was ransomed with a ram.”* He told Ibn ‘Abbas and he replied, “This is the decision I wanted to give you.” Razin transmitted it. *This agrees with the story in the Old Testament which says that Abraham was preparing to sacrifice Isaac, whereas the usual Muslim version is that it was Ishmael.

وَعَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْمُنْتَشِرِ قَالَ: إِنَّ رَجُلًا نَذَرَ أَنْ يَنْحَرَ نَفْسَهُ إِنْ نَجَّاهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَسَأَلَ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ: سَلْ مَسْرُوقًا فَسَأَلَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ: لَا تَنْحَرْ نَفْسَكَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ كُنْتَ مُؤْمِنًا قَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا مُؤْمِنَةً وَإِنْ كُنْتَ كَافِرًا تَعَجَّلْتَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَاشْتَرِ كَبْشًا فَاذْبَحْهُ لِلْمَسَاكِينِ فَإِنَّ إِسْحَاقَ خَيْرٌ مِنْكَ وَفُدِيَ بِكَبْشٍ فَأَخْبَرَ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ فَقَالَ: هَكَذَا كُنْتُ أَرَدْتُ أَنْ أُفْتِيَكَ. رَوَاهُ رَزِينٌ

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